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Grupo de Análise de Mercado

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Gabriel Anderson
Gabriel Anderson

Bendability



Bendability, which indicates how easily you can bend a material without breaking it, is commonly associated with aluminum. Purer aluminum alloys, such as those used for household aluminum foil, are highly flexible and exhibit excellent bendability. However, adding other alloying elements to improve strength or other properties can impact bendability.




bendability



Before discussing aluminum alloys, we should cover some background about the factors that affect their bendability. As you can imagine, products like aluminum foil, gutters, traffic signs, and automotive body parts, which are all made from aluminum alloys, have different bendability.


The Fabricator offers certain key tables and general rules which are helpful for understanding the limits to bendability for specific aluminum alloys. You can use these to determine the minimum allowable bend radius for particular thicknesses of aluminum sheet.


With magnesium as the primary alloying element, AA5052 demonstrates moderate-to-high strength characteristics. At the same time, it retains good bendability, and designers can use it for more intensive applications than AA3003. The corrosion resistance of this alloy is also excellent against seawater, meaning it is excellent for applications in marine equipment.


Despite their different properties, these alloys are excellent examples of bendability in aluminum alloys. They demonstrate that even though some aluminum alloys feature better formability and percent elongation for a given bend radius and thickness, they each serve a unique purpose and a wide variety of applications.


Even with slightly lower bendability, the strength of alloy 6061 makes it one of the most widely used aluminum alloys. In the same way, alloy 3003 has multiple uses in applications that require superior bendability. Meanwhile, alloy 5052 is commonly used thanks to its balance in terms of bendability and strength.


To improve the bendability of flexible nanoelectronics, a buffer layer has been adopted [3, 6, 9, 15]. Researchers have reported that the mechanical bendability of electronic nanodevices can be increased by using a buffer layer above or below the ITO layer. However, they did not suggest an optimized design rule that considers both the thickness and elastic modulus of the buffer material. Because various buffer layers could be used to increase the thermal, chemical, and mechanical stabilities of flexible electronic nanodevices, a governing design rule is crucially needed to optimize the bendability of these flexible nanodevices regardless of the buffer layers that are chosen. In this article, we report a design rule for the bendability optimization of flexible optical nanoelectronics through controlling the neutral axis (NA). If we place the fragile layer such as ITO in a nanodevice at the NA position, the bending stress and strain in the layer are greatly reduced, thus enhancing the bendability of the device. Therefore, we first investigate the behavior of the NA position and the effect on the device bendability by independently considering the elastic modulus and thickness of a buffer layer on the ITO. Because the elastic modulus and thickness of a buffer layer influenced each other when determining the NA, we should consider these parameters together. Therefore, we develop a design rule for the bendability optimization of flexible electronics by controlling the NA position, considering both the thickness and elastic modulus of the buffer layer. Finally, our design rule to optimize the bendability of flexible devices is applied to an inverted OSC with an ITO optical window. We believe that our design rule based on NA engineering will provide a great advantage to improve the bendability of flexible nanoelectronics.


Scheme for NA positions of a flexible film including a brittle material (here, ITO). (a) Without and (b) with a buffer layer. By adopting a buffer layer, NA can be controlled to be located to the brittle material, leading to high bendability. (c, d) Illustrations of corresponding stress distributions for (a) and (b), respectively. (E: elastic modulus, t: thickness, T: tensile stress, C: compressive stress).


Experimental verification of enhanced bendability of ITO-based thin films according to the t b of PI. (a) Two-probe resistance and (b) maximum stress of ITO layer for PI/ITO/PES on bending curvature κ (σy: yield strength).


In summary, we have clearly demonstrated that the bendability of flexible optical nanodevices could be significantly enhanced by NA engineering, considering both the thickness and elastic modulus of a buffer layer on the ITO layer. Because the material property and geometry of a buffer layer could be different based on the purpose of a flexible electronic nanodevice, our design rule, which considers both the thickness and modulus of a buffer layer, is anticipated to be suitable for the bendability optimization of various flexible nanoelectronics. Furthermore, our design rule was applied to inverted OSCs with various buffer materials, and we confirmed that all of the OSCs showed excellent bendability, whatever buffer materials were chosen. Thus, our strategy may provide a wide range of opportunities for a variety of flexible electronic applications.


Due to a proprietary crystallization control process, this ED copper foil can be recrystallized after heating. The HD series boasts bendability equivalent to tough-pitch copper after recrystallization.


The bendability of AA5754 aluminum alloy in fully recrystallized temper (O temper) has been studied. Both experimental and numerical work showed that a strong 001 Cube crystallographic texture in the sheet provides improved bendability compared with a low Cube texture sheet, even though the tensile properties of both sheets are similar. A crystal-based finite element model also showed that the textural distribution influences bendability, while the initial surface topography has little effect.


Mechanical deformations of DNA such as bending are ubiquitous and have been implicated in diverse cellular functions1. However, the lack of high-throughput tools to measure the mechanical properties of DNA has limited our understanding of how DNA mechanics influence chromatin transactions across the genome. Here we develop 'loop-seq'-a high-throughput assay to measure the propensity for DNA looping-and determine the intrinsic cyclizabilities of 270,806 50-base-pair DNA fragments that span Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome V, other genomic regions, and random sequences. We found sequence-encoded regions of unusually low bendability within nucleosome-depleted regions upstream of transcription start sites (TSSs). Low bendability of linker DNA inhibits nucleosome sliding into the linker by the chromatin remodeller INO80, which explains how INO80 can define nucleosome-depleted regions in the absence of other factors2. Chromosome-wide, nucleosomes were characterized by high DNA bendability near dyads and low bendability near linkers. This contrast increases for deeper gene-body nucleosomes but disappears after random substitution of synonymous codons, which suggests that the evolution of codon choice has been influenced by DNA mechanics around gene-body nucleosomes. Furthermore, we show that local DNA mechanics affect transcription through TSS-proximal nucleosomes. Overall, this genome-scale map of DNA mechanics indicates a 'mechanical code' with broad functional implications.


N2 - Mechanical deformations of DNA such as bending are ubiquitous and have been implicated in diverse cellular functions1. However, the lack of high-throughput tools to measure the mechanical properties of DNA has limited our understanding of how DNA mechanics influence chromatin transactions across the genome. Here we develop 'loop-seq'-a high-throughput assay to measure the propensity for DNA looping-and determine the intrinsic cyclizabilities of 270,806 50-base-pair DNA fragments that span Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome V, other genomic regions, and random sequences. We found sequence-encoded regions of unusually low bendability within nucleosome-depleted regions upstream of transcription start sites (TSSs). Low bendability of linker DNA inhibits nucleosome sliding into the linker by the chromatin remodeller INO80, which explains how INO80 can define nucleosome-depleted regions in the absence of other factors2. Chromosome-wide, nucleosomes were characterized by high DNA bendability near dyads and low bendability near linkers. This contrast increases for deeper gene-body nucleosomes but disappears after random substitution of synonymous codons, which suggests that the evolution of codon choice has been influenced by DNA mechanics around gene-body nucleosomes. Furthermore, we show that local DNA mechanics affect transcription through TSS-proximal nucleosomes. Overall, this genome-scale map of DNA mechanics indicates a 'mechanical code' with broad functional implications.


AB - Mechanical deformations of DNA such as bending are ubiquitous and have been implicated in diverse cellular functions1. However, the lack of high-throughput tools to measure the mechanical properties of DNA has limited our understanding of how DNA mechanics influence chromatin transactions across the genome. Here we develop 'loop-seq'-a high-throughput assay to measure the propensity for DNA looping-and determine the intrinsic cyclizabilities of 270,806 50-base-pair DNA fragments that span Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome V, other genomic regions, and random sequences. We found sequence-encoded regions of unusually low bendability within nucleosome-depleted regions upstream of transcription start sites (TSSs). Low bendability of linker DNA inhibits nucleosome sliding into the linker by the chromatin remodeller INO80, which explains how INO80 can define nucleosome-depleted regions in the absence of other factors2. Chromosome-wide, nucleosomes were characterized by high DNA bendability near dyads and low bendability near linkers. This contrast increases for deeper gene-body nucleosomes but disappears after random substitution of synonymous codons, which suggests that the evolution of codon choice has been influenced by DNA mechanics around gene-body nucleosomes. Furthermore, we show that local DNA mechanics affect transcription through TSS-proximal nucleosomes. Overall, this genome-scale map of DNA mechanics indicates a 'mechanical code' with broad functional implications. 041b061a72


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